This project will examine the contention that female perpetrators of the Rwandan genocide were not held fully accountable for their crimes. The research will lead to a greater understanding of the Rwandan transitional justice system and the gendered layers of violence and agency during the genocide. Approaching the issue of female perpetration going unchallenged from historical, sociological, anthropological, psychological, legal and statistical perspectives will allow a consideration of the relative importance of different narratives, agents and underlying stereotypes in the conceptualisation of female genocidal involvement. The PhD will open up questions such as what the realities are moving forward in a society where genocidal perpetrators continue to live alongside victims. It will also speak to debates over the agency and culpability of women in violence throughout history, and to a developing literature on the effectiveness of transitional justice.